Waterfall Wednesday Clickety Click Nov. 18th 2020
Rocks and Minerals
This weeks Clickety Clicks, is yet another off the wall idea. What kinds of Rocks and Minerals could I pull from our Waterfall Name? Click on an a Rock or Mineral type. A brief description of the Rock or Minerals is provided.
Miner – A miner is a person who extracts ore, coal, or other mineral from the earth through mining. There are two senses in which the term is used. In its narrowest sense, a miner is someone who works at the rock face; cutting, blasting, or otherwise working and removing the rock.
Mineral – A mineral is a naturally occurring inorganic solid, with a definite chemical composition, and an ordered atomic arrangement. This may seem a bit of a mouthful, but if you break it down it becomes simpler. Minerals are naturally occurring. They are not made by humans. Minerals are inorganic.
Clay is a sedimentary rock. It is filled with minerals that often weather to create shale. Clay is a type of fine-grained natural soil material that contains hydrous aluminium phyllosilicates (clay minerals) that develops plasticity when wet.
Concrete is made up of three basic components: water, aggregate (rock, sand, or gravel) and Portland cement. Cement, usually in powder form, acts as a binding agent when mixed with water and aggregates.
Copper metal does occur naturally, but by far the greatest source is in minerals such as chalcopyrite and bornite. Copper is obtained from these ores and minerals by smelting, leaching and electrolysis.
Crystal Do crystals come from rocks? Each crystal starts small and grows as more atoms are added. Many grow from water rich in dissolved minerals, but they also grow from melted rock and even vapor. Under the influence of different temperatures and pressures, atoms combine in an amazing array of crystal shapes.
Diamonds are made of carbon so they form as carbon atoms under a high temperature and pressure; they bond together to start growing crystals. Geologists believe that the diamonds in all of Earth’s commercial diamond deposits were formed in the mantle and delivered to the surface by deep-source volcanic eruptions. These eruptions produce the kimberlite and lamproite pipes that are sought after by diamond prospectors.
Emerald is a gemstone and a variety of the mineral beryl colored green by trace amounts of chromium and sometimes vanadium.
Emery, granular rock consisting of a mixture of the mineral corundum (aluminum oxide, Al2O3) and iron oxides such as magnetite (Fe3O4) or hematite (Fe2O3). Long used as an abrasive or polishing material, it is a dark-coloured, dense substance, having much the appearance of an iron ore.
Garnets are a group of silicate minerals that have been used since the Bronze Age as gemstones and abrasives. All species of garnets possess similar physical properties and crystal forms, but differ in chemical composition.
Gold often occurs in free elemental (native) form, as nuggets or grains, in rocks, in veins, and in alluvial deposits. It occurs in a solid solution series with the native element silver (as electrum) and also naturally alloyed with copper and palladium.
Iron is the fourth most widely distributed element on the earth’s crust but is found as iron ore rather than as a useable metal. Iron ore comes in a variety of forms and looks like rock. It is a mixture of iron, oxygen and other elements, mixed in with sands and clays.
Knox Group (the) is a widespread geologic group in the Southeastern United States. Though not commonly fossiliferous, it preserves fossils dating back to the Cambrian period. Typical lithologies include thick-bedded cherty dolomites and limestones. Associated minerals include barite, fluorite, lead, and most importantly zinc in the form of the mineral sphalerite. Oil and gas also occur in the Knox Group beneath the Appalachian Plateaus.
Opal is formed from a solution of silicon dioxide and water. As water runs down through the earth, it picks up silica from sandstone, and carries this silica-rich solution into cracks and voids , caused by natural faults or decomposing fossils. As the water evaporates, it leaves behind a silica deposit. There are two broad classes of opal: precious and common. Precious opal displays play-of-color (iridescence), common opal does not. Play-of-color is defined as “a pseudo chromatic optical effect resulting in flashes of colored light from certain minerals, as they are turned in white light.
Pestle In English a molcajete is called a mortar and tejolote, or pestle. … Mortar and pestles are made of various materials. The most popular ones are made of ceramic, stone, hard wood, porcelain, basalt, brass, or glass. This object is most likely made of vesicular basalt, a type of volcanic rock.
Pyrite’s metallic luster and pale brass-yellow hue give it a superficial resemblance to gold, hence the well-known nickname of fool’s gold. The color has also led to the nicknames brass, brazzle, and Brazil, primarily used to refer to pyrite found in coal.
Sand is a granular material composed of finely divided rock and mineral particles. It is defined by size, being finer than gravel and coarser than silt. Sand can also refer to a textural class of soil or soil type; i.e., a soil containing more than 85 percent sand-sized particles by mass.
Sandsea – An erg (also sand sea or dune sea, or sand sheet if it lacks dunes) is a broad, flat area of desert covered with wind-swept sand with little or no vegetative cover.
Shale, any of a group of fine-grained, laminated sedimentary rocks consisting of silt- and clay-sized particles. Shale is the most abundant of the sedimentary rocks, accounting for roughly 70 percent of this rock type in the crust of the Earth.
Silver is a chemical element with the symbol Ag (from the Latin argentum, derived from the Proto-Indo-European h₂erǵ: “shiny” or “white”) and atomic number 47. A soft, white, lustrous transition metal, it exhibits the highest electrical conductivity, thermal conductivity, and reflectivity of any metal. The metal is found in the Earth’s crust in the pure, free elemental form (“native silver“), as an alloy with gold and other metals, and in minerals such as argentite and chlorargyrite. Most silver is produced as a byproduct of copper, gold, lead, and zinc refining.
Slate is a low grade metamorphic rock generally formed by the metamorphosis of mudstone / shale, or sometimes basalt, under relatively low pressure and temperature conditions.
Stone – What is the Difference Between Rock and Stone? While many use the terms interchangeably, there is a difference between the two. Stone is smaller than rock. To easily sum it up, rock is made out of stone and mineral matter. The stone used to make your counter tops was cut from rock. Can a stone grow? Rocks can grow taller and larger. Rocks also grow bigger, heavier and stronger, but it takes a rock thousands or even millions of years to change.
Sulfer Although not an important rock-forming mineral, sulfur is still a crucial resource for human societies. Sulfur is a native element as well as a mineral. Its crystal form consists of transparent to translucent crystals that have an unmistakable deep yellow color.
Talc is a rock known as steatite or soapstone, which is composed of varying proportions of the mineral talc, often combined with other minerals such as chlorite and carbonate. Talc is an industrial raw material in powder form, which is used in a wide range of applications.